Applied Robotics

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This book gives a project-oriented introduction to the field of robotics. It guides the beginner through the challenges of building a working robot and it may provide new ideas and techniques for the advanced builder. No single project in this book is very difficult; in fact, most of them are extremely simple. This is an excellent book for the hobbiest who wants to enter the exciting world of personal robotics.

But don't take our word on it... here are some quotes by readers of Applied Robotics:

"I have read your Book and built some of the experiments described. I love your book for its wide horizon of different technical aspects treated. The idea with Fuzbol, being an interpreter and allowing 32KBytes of program is a great one."
-- B. Schlosser

"I'm really enjoying your book and wanted to get the parts in hand before you ran out...I have a varied background in project engineering and mechanical design and look forward to working through the exercises."
-- Carl Buchanan

"APPLIED ROBOTICS by none other than EDWIN WISE...seems to be THE BEST BOOK YET for the aspiring robotics wanna-be... The more I read, the more I am impressed. No kidding, I would trade about ten robotics books I have for the usefulness of the material in Edwin's book... I haven't seen a book since the Robot Builders Bonanza that had so much good info." (edited for length)
-- Team Ascendant, <nop>BattleBots Forum

"I thought I would just write to say thanks for your book, Applied Robotics. I studied electrical engineering at univerisity and majored in electronics. I would have loved to have had this book while I was studying. Clear and easy to read, understandable from the first page to the last. Through reading this book I have decided to get back into electronics and robotics in particular."
-- Stuart Burke


Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Robotics

  • Robots?
  • Tools and Equipment

2. Mechanical Platforms

  • Types of Electric Motors
  • Using PMDC Motors
  • Cheating
  • Project 2-1: Building a Small Wheeled Platform

3. Power Supplies

  • Batteries
  • Project 3-1: Motor Power Pack
  • Project 3-2: Electronics Power Pack
  • Step-Up/Step-Down Regulators

4. Electronic Control

  • Project 4-1: MOSFET Switch
  • Project 4-2: PWM Speed Control
  • R/C Servo Control
  • Mechanical H-Bridge
  • Project 4-3: Semi-Mechanical H-Bridge
  • MOSFET H-Bridge
  • Project 4-4: Permanent Motor Drivers

5. Adding Sense

  • Project 5-1: Time
  • Project 5-2: Touch
  • Project 5-3: Light
  • Signal Amplification
  • Project 5-4: Sound

6. Itís Alive! Simple Robot Behaviors

  • Project 6-1: Braitenberg Behaviors

7. Microcontroller

  • Survey of Microcontrollers
  • Project 7-1: Atmel MCU Base
  • Machine Programming Basics
  • AT90S8515 Machine Architecture
  • Memory
  • Registers
  • Program Execution
  • Addressing Modes
  • Instruction Set and Development Tools

8. MCU Senses

  • Program 8-1: Pulse
  • Project 8-2: Touch
  • Project 8-3: Legs
  • Project 8-4: Light
  • Project 8-5: Interfacing to Displays and Computers

9. Igor, Fetch me Some Brains!

  • Layers of Intelligence
  • The Many Shades of Grey-matter
  • Reactive Control
  • Fuzzy Logic

10. Fuzbol

  • Fuzbol: Fuzzy Control Language
  • Project 10-1: Using Fuzbol
  • Program 10-2: Fuzzy Heartbeat
  • Project 10-3: Fuzzy Legs and Feelers
  • Project 10-4: MCU with External RAM
  • Program 10-5: Fuzzy Braitenberg
  • Following

11. More Sense

  • Where am I? Position Mapping
  • Whatís out there? Physical Senses

12. R/C Servos 13. Pneumatics

  • Air Power Principles
  • Components

14. Appendix: Fuzbol Language Reference

  • Hardware Assumptions
  • Fuzbol Programs
  • Fuzzy numbers
  • Fuzbol Instructions

15. Appendix: Sample Programs

  • Alive.asm
  • mcu_heart.asm
  • mcu_feeler.asm
  • mcu_motor.asm
  • mcu_eyes.asm
  • Heartbeat.fuz
  • Legs.fuz
  • Motor.fuz
  • ioPort.fuz
  • Timid.fuz
  • Fear.fuz
  • Aggression.fuz
  • Love.fuz
  • Dogged.fuz
  • Insecure.fuz
  • Moth.fuz
  • Servo.fuz

16. Appendix: Conversions and Codes Reference

  • Units
  • Resistor Codes
  • Capacitor Codes

17. Bibliography

18. Suppliers

19. Index


Errata

Fuzbol Errata and Updates can be found under the Fuzbol page on this website.


What about the programmer on Page 82 (Figure 7-4)? While we used to sell a programmer kit, and then a programmer board, we don't anymore. The Atmel programmer available from [DigiKey] now does in-circuit programming so it replaces much of the need for the programmer in the book. You can, of course, use the Atmel programmer to make the book's programmer, so you can do Fuzbol programming.


Error: Can't find "index.html" If, when you insert the CD into the drive, your computer can't find the index page, you can load it manually. Open your favorite web browser, and simply open the file index.html on the root of the CD!

Eagle License It seems that the Eagle license key shipped with the book isn't the correct license to run the demo! Go to [Eagle] for the full scoop on getting a demo version.

Why Atmel? The question has come up -- why did I use the Atmel processor, when the HC11, OOPic, Basic Stamp, and PIC are all more popular with hobbiests? Two reasons: First, many of these other processors were amply covered in the existing literature. Second, I like the Atmel RISC architecture better than these others. What can I say?

Why Fuzbol? Why invent a new language when there are so many fine versions of C and Basic out there? Two reasons again: First, when I wrote this book, there weren't any cheap or free languages for the Atmel. Second, I wanted a language that was better suited to the task; designed for robotics as it were. Now, there is the [OOPIC] system which is a very nice architecture. Fuzbol itself is in the process of a significant upgrade, which should become available late 2001.


P.32, Figure 3-4 This figure can be a bit confusing to read. The Boxes labelled "Motors" and "Electronics" would be better named "Motor Battery" and "Electronics Battery", as they are called in Figure 3-5 below.

P.39, Figure 4-3 Michael Shulz has sharper eyes than mine -- he noticed that the diodes in the figure have the cathode marked 'K' and that, given these markings, the left hand diodes (one on each MOSFET) should be reversed.

P.39, Figure 4-3 Michael also noticed that I am missing a jumper from the bottom diode grouping to the M (motor) ground in this diagram.

P.41, Figure 4-6 Of course, the errors in Figure 4-3 are repeated in Figure 4-6, due to the joys of cut-and-paste.

P.41, Frequency calculation Michael also noticed a missing factor in the frequency calculation. The formula should read "F = 1.44 / ((R1 + 2*R2) * C)".

P.44, Figure 4-9 The zener diodes 1N4735 are not strictly necessary; they essentially duplicate the function of the body diode in most modern MOSFETs.

P.46, Figure 4-11 The P-channel MOSFETs are shown upside down... the body diode should be pointing up.

P.51, Table 5-2 (Noticed by Ross C. Taylor) This is actually a duplicate of Table 5-4 later in the book. The parts list for project 5-2 is not actually given. The annoying thing is, this was probably a fault in publication that I could have caught. I was only able to do final editing review on galley proofs that didn't include tables or figures, so I couldn't catch it. I know better now and insist on better galley proofs. Nothing like painfully earned experience...

P.105, Figure 8-2 The D/D converter at the left side of the schematic is not used in this project. Apparently, the more advanced Figure 8-4 got reproduced here as well.

P.201 (Noticed by Dan Reznik) The formula for the cylinder area is done wrong on this page, and defined wrong on the next. This makes the Q and Cv calculations wrong in this section. Keeps me humble.

P.202 The formula for effective surface area of the cylinder is blatantly wrong. Instead of "A=Dc * PI" (which gives the circumference) it should be "A=PI * (Dc/2)^2"... PI R Squared. The same goes for the formula for B. I blush to think how this got past me.

P.204 These calculations to work out the temperature drop... I don't think I did them right...

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